Friday, March 20, 2020
The Dawn of the Therapeutic As essays Usually no deeper than 5 feet, a hole would be dug into the ground and covered with a grate to confine a lunatic who had been established as a menace to society. In this dwelling a mentally-ill person would be placed, fed, and kept until death. This was one of the many household remedies that people of the early 18th century implored as means of suppression of a mad-person. From this treatment arose the development of the Traditional Asylum. In the Traditional Asylum, patients would be crowded into small facilities along with the homeless and criminals, where the mentally ill would endure brutal treatments and poor conditions in which the ill-person would corrupt in their own filth. Household treatments predating psychiatry and Traditional Asylums were developed for custodial purposes. Dismissing all hope of treatment, these treatments were simply performed and placed to remove mentally-ill individuals from the public domain. With the dawn of the Enlightenment, came a new type of asy lum, the Therapeutic Asylum. This asylum focused on the treatment and cure of the clinically insane through isolation from indecent environments, rigorously scheduled activities, and daily baths. Between the grotesque methods of suppression implemented in the household, the custodial beliefs of the Traditional Asylum, and the treatment focus of the therapeutic asylum, the therapeutic method stood as the best development in treatment for the insane. Psychiatric treatment endured many revolutions within the 18th and 19th century in England. In the early 18th century, the treatment of the insane was cruel and poor. Since psychiatry was not yet an official field in medicine, treatment of an individual with a mental disorder was often left to the family. Only when the individual became unmanageable were they sent to one of the few hospitals accepting mental patients where they were cared for by physicians. Often times, when such a measure was finally taken, it...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Spanish Vocabulary of Air Travel Unless you live near the right international border, theres no quicker way to visit a Spanish-speaking country than to fly. And even though English is widely spoken in international travel, it is likely that your first encounter with Spanish on a vacation or business trip will be on the plane or at the airport. Study these words and phrases before you go on your trip and youll better be able to take care of your travel needs or to eavesdrop: Useful words la aduana - customsla aerolÃ nea - airlineel aeropuerto - airportla almohada - pillowel asiento - seatel auxiliar de vuelo, la azafata - flight attendantel aviÃ ³n - airplaneel boleto - ticketel baÃ ±o - bathroomla clase ejecutiva, la clase turista - executive class, tourist classla comida - mealconfirmar una reservaciÃ ³n - to confirm a reservationel destino - destinationel equipaje - luggageel horario, el itinerario - schedulela linea aerea - airlinela maleta - suitcasela oferta - special, saleel pasajero, la pasajera - passengerel pasaporte - passportla primera clase - first classel regreso - returnla reserva, la reservaciÃ ³n - reservationla salida - departure, exitla tarifa - pricela tienda libre de impuestos - duty-free shopel viaje - journey, tripel vuelo - flight, wing Useful phrases: Ã ¿Cundo sale el aviÃ ³n? - When does the plane leave?Ã ¿Cundo llega el aviÃ ³n? - When does the plane arrive?Ã ¿DÃ ³nde est el baÃ ±o? - Where is the bathroom?Ã ¿Habla usted inglÃ ©s? - Do you speak English?
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Alcoholism and Its Effects to the Community of Jersey City - Term Paper Example There is also the study of the various societal issues that affect the city. One of the issues is alcoholism and its effect on the population of the city spreads wide. It is important to review these issues and the various health issues that accompany it in both a human and the society as a whole. The demographic study of the area shows that in the 2010 census, the country had around 246,594 people in total. Of this vast population, people under the age of 18 years were 23.5%. The number of people from the population that was above the age of 65 was 13.5%. Scrutinizing the gender aspect of the population, there was some form of balance as 51.3% of the people were females. The city has a vast population of white people as compared to black people despite its proximity to the suburbs of New York that have very many black people. In New Jersey, 69.1% of the population comprised of white people while 13.7% represented the black community. The rest of the population remaining to make up 1 00% comprised people of mixed Races and backgrounds (Jacobs, 2012). Other statistics on the city tend to show the various issues involved with the drinking population of the city. Alcoholism has been an issue on the rise and the police have grown more vigilant in an effort to curb this issue. The national bureau of statistics brought out the Driving under the Influence statistics. Drunk driving in the United City is a very widespread felony and the reduction of this is very influential. The statistics showed that earlier years and specifically in the year 1995, 689 cases of drunken driving reports in New Jersey came in. By the year 1999, the cases had gone down as 653 cases of drunk driving were reported. However, of the most recent statistics from the 2009, there were 721 cases of driving under the influence. That was a very sharp increase as compared to initial years (Jacobs, 2012). The Alcoholic Anonymous is one of the services that have had its services in New Jersey of the few past years. This is because of the noted increase in alcoholism in the city. 77% of the alcoholics in Jersey City do not actually recognize the service and just go on with their daily activities. However, for the 23% of the population that pays attention to the recent trends in the system, they have benefited greatly through training and there have been some extra services of the past three years to help reduce the addiction of some of the members. The number of people migrating out of the city in the past 3 years has increased steadily. Interviews with some of these people clearly show that the 15% of the reason behind this is alcoholism. The people state that it is hard for them to bring up their children in the neighborhoods as they feel that they will grow to be regular drinkers as has been the case of many of the people living there without the ability to control oneself (Cindy, 2008). There was also the review of the number of pubs in the city and this goes well to support the issues brought out by the emigrants. Studies show that over the last three years, the number of pubs in Jersey City has increased at a rate of around 27%. The reason as to why this has happened is the fact that the tax rate on alcoholic beverages has gone down from the last budget. This has made entrepreneurs major in venturing into the alcoholic business that seems profitable by a very large margin. Jersey City is known to be one that is easily influenced by changes around and the amount of peer
Monday, February 3, 2020
TRADOC - Essay Example Indeed, it must be realized that in order to realize its mission, there must be a proper integration of the activities of TRADOC. Considering that the mission of the Command revolves around training, it is imperative to note that this training is geared towards creating effective formations that can help address the overall mission objectives of the US Army (TRADOC 2012) . TRADOC also has an objective of ensuring the Army is guided through doctrine. This is a very important objective especially in the disciplined forces. It is often realized that many people in the Army fail to understand much of the doctrine that guide their operations. In this respects, challenges often abound. In line with TRADOCÃ¢â¬â¢s missions of designing a capable and versatile US Army, this objective is definitely a proper way of ensuring the compliance with the law. TRADOC also seeks to develop very adaptive leaders both drawn from soldiers and civilians. Indeed, as a training unit, TRADOC seeks to transfo rm not only the army but civilians as well. It therefore extends its training in order to create a population that understands and appreciates the important role of the Army. Through proper leadership, it is expected that the mission of TRADOC will be achieved across the board as people will share much of the information obtained from the Command. As a training Command, the core objective of TRADOC is therefore to recruit and train solders and to provide various ways that support unit training. In this respect, TRADOC oversees Army school across the country which train over 500,000 soldiers and service members yearly. The training is always made to reflect the changing times and this call for much innovation and agility. In this case, the trainees are always suited to serve in both times of peace and war. All these objectives outlined above certainly have various measures to ensure they are effectively achieved. With respect to building and integrating the various formations, one me asurement aspect can be a united and cohesive Army and proper coexistence between the Army and the civilians. It is often realized that a lack of integration of the various units presents many challenges in administration. Such a measurement would therefore be effective in gauging the effectiveness of the training in this respect. As regards civilian training, one measurement metric can involve conducting a survey on the civilians to determine whether they understand the imperatives of Army training and the need to appreciate the role of the Army in the society. Lastly, with respect to overall training, measurement is achieved by the quality of the various Army commands and whether they realize their particular objectives. For instance their performance in war or in peacetime activities such as natural calamities can effectively provide an insight on their effectiveness DePuy, W. E., (Swain, Gilmore & Conway, 2000). Considering that the focus of TRADOC is essentially training, the e xpected level of performance or target is the lack of any challenges in operations with respect to the various formations. On civilian training, the target is the achievement is a cohesive coexistence between the solders and the civilians. In terms of general training, the target is professionalism and excellence in terms of performance at all times (King & Demsey, 2008). In order to ensure a successful
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Major Functions Of The Skin The skin is the largest organ of the body. Measuring between 1.5 and 2.0 square metres in an adult, it forms an extensive contact area with the environment. This contact presents a variety of important challenges, which the skin must meet in order to protect the body. It also provides important opportunities, which the skin uses to maintain homeostasis. Consider the challenges and opportunities posed by contact with the environment and relate them to the major functions of the skin. The integumentary system, consisting of skin, hair and nails, act as a barrier to protect the body from the environment.Ã Some challenges and opportunities posed to the skin by the environments are; exposure to sunlight/UV Rays, bacteria, mechanical damage, chemical damage and thermal damage. The integumentary system acts as a barrier in three ways: a chemical barrier, a physical barrier and a biological barrier. The integumentary system works with the immune system to create a biological barrier. Specialized cells in the skin find and destroy foreign bacteria. A physical barrier consists of hard, keratinized cells in the nails, skin and hair. These cells especially in skin and nails help protect the internal organs and blood system from external environmental factors. Hair helps to minimalise insects from crawling on the skin, protect the scalp from physical trauma and regulate heat. A chemical barrier is also due to skin. The skin has sweat glands which secrete substances onto the skin that stop the reproduction of bacteria. The skin also produces melanin which acts to protect ultraviolet rays from the sun however despite melanins protective factors excessive sun exposure will eventually damage the skin. 2 Explain how the structures of the skin contribute to its functions. 35% 437.5 Answer The skin is the largest organ in the integumentary system and has 2 major components: the cutaneous membrane or skin and the accessory structures. The cutaneous membrane has 2 components: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the outer layer of theÃ skin and the dermis is a layer ofÃ skinÃ between theÃ epidermisÃ andÃ subcutaneous tissues. The accessory structures consists of hair, nails and multicellular exocrine glands. The epidermis consists of 5 layers; the stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum and corneum. The Stratum basale is the outer layer of skin, theÃ stratum spinosumÃ is a layer of theÃ epidermisÃ found between theÃ stratum granulosumÃ andÃ stratum basale.Ã This layer helps to prevent dehydration, theÃ stratum granulosumÃ is the layer between theÃ stratum lucidumÃ andÃ stratum spinosum, theÃ stratum lucidumÃ is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells. It is found only in areas of thick skin, most noticeably on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet and finally theÃ stratum corneumÃ is the outermost layer and is filled with keratin, which is made up of dead cells. The dermis is responsible for the strength of skin. Its main functions are to regulate temperature and to supply the epidermis with nutrient-saturated blood. Much of the bodys water supply is stored within the dermis.Ã The dermis contains most of the skins specialized cells and structures, including: Blood vessels, lymph vessels, hairÃ follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous, or oil, glands, nerve endings, collagenÃ andÃ elastin. The dermis layer is made up of two sublayers, the papillary layer, which contains a thin arrangement of collagen fibers. The papillary layer supplies nutrients to select layers of the epidermis and regulates temperature. The second is the reticular layer which is thicker and made of thick collagen fibers that are arranged in parallel to the surface of the skin. The reticular layer strengthens the skin, providing structure and elasticity. A layer of tissue that lies immediately below the dermis is the hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue. The hypodermis consists primarily of looseÃ connective tissueÃ and lobules of fat and acts as an energy reserve. It contains largerÃ blood vesselsÃ and nervesÃ than those found in the dermis.Ã The hypodermis contains: elastic fibers, fibrous bands, fat, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicle roots, nerves and muscle. The skin includes the following functions; protection, sensation, heat regulation, control of evaporation, storage and synthesis, absorption, water resistance. The structures of the skin all work together to maintain the important functions. 3 You are exercising on a hot day. Explain two ways in which the integumentary system acts to preserve homeostasis 20% 250 Answer Two ways in which the integumentary system acts to preserve homeostasis are sweating and vasodilation. Homeostasis is a term for your bodys ability to regulate your internal state, and sweating is an example of this. If your bodyÃ temperature gets too high, one of the homeostatic mechanisms used to bring your temp back to normal is sweating. Eccrine sweat glands are the major sweat glands of the human body, found in virtually all skin. Sweat is clear secretion that is primarily water and salt (sodium chloride). Sweat reaches the skin via a duct that opens externally as a funnel shaped pore. Eccrine sweat glands are a highly efficient part of the heat regulating system, they are supplied with nerve endings that cause them to secrete sweat when the bodys temperature gets too high. When sweat evaporates off the skins surface it takes body heat with it. On a hot day you could lose up to 7 litres of body water. Another way the integumentary system acts to preserve homeostasis is vasodilation. Blood vessels supplying blood to the skin can swell or dilate called vasodilation. This causes more heat to be carried by the blood to the skin, where it can be lost to the air however if the external environment is as hot as or hotter than the body the only way to release heat is through evaporation of perspiration. This is an efficient source of heat loss as long as the air is dry, if it is humid evaporation occurs at a much slower rate leaving the person hot and irritated. When the body cools down the hypothalamus through the autonomic nervous system tells the heat loss centre to switch off. 4 Indicate how ageing affects the skin and explain how these changes affect its normal function. 15% Answer As people age their epidermal cell replacement slows therefore the skin begins to thin resulting in an increase of bruising and other types of injury. The lubricating substances provided by the skin glands that provides young looking and soft skin start to become less efficient, resulting in dry itchy skin. Elastic fibers and collagen fibers become fewer and stiffer so the skin has much less elasticity resulting in wrinkles. The decrease in numbers of melanocytes and langerhans cells produced can enhance the risk of skin cancer in older age, especially if alot of ultraviolet rays are absorbed. UV rays are a major contribution to the rapidity of skins aging. Over time, the suns rays damage certain fibers in the skin called elastin. The breakdown of elastin fibers causes the skin to sag and take longer to heal. Ageing also affects things below the skin; loss of fat below the skin may result in loosening skin, bone loss after the age of 60 can cause puckering of the skin around the mouth, cartilage loss in the nose causes drooping of the nasal tip. Smokers also tend to have more wrinkles than non-smokers of the same age. Skin changes associated with ageing pose particular problems for nurses caring for elderly people. 5 Outline the nursing principles involved in skin care in the elderly. 15% Answer Elderly patients are prone to skin tears, ulcers, abrasions, irritation and infection especially if they are diabetic. If proper skin care is not adhered to, it can result in sores, dry/painful skin and even gangrene. When an elderly patient is bathing the temperature of the water should be warm rather than hot as elderly peoples skin does not contain as much oil as it once did, if all the oil is washed away, their skin is more susceptible to breaking, which can lead to infection. A mild soap should always be used as it is not harsh on their skin and helps prevent it from becoming dry. Due to the loss of natural oils in the skin, it is necessary to apply a moisturizing lotion after a bath and multiple times through the day. Using a moisturizer helps reduce the itchiness, and the likelihood of infection. It is not uncommon for some elderly patients to be confined to their bed 24 hours a day. This is when skin care is vital, especially if they are incontinent of bowel and bladder, washing and drying the area regularly can reduce the risk of a fungal infection forming. Elderly skin must be observed regularly to check for changes such as moles. MARK SHEET. Workbook 3 Integumentary system Question Marks out of 100 Marks Awarded 1st marker 2nd marker Agreed 1 15 2 35 3 20 4 15 5 15 Total 100 Final Agreed Mark Workbook 1 Workbook 2 Workbook 3 Final Percentage
Friday, January 17, 2020
Buy Nothing Day was created to protest consumerism. Though some think this is a marvelous idea of giving the finger to big companies, many others donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the point in a day that will not be effective because of the greed of Americans for luxurious products and the counteraction of the companies that will cause consumers to buy anyway. Americans are known for desiring items that are not necessities. This is shown on Black Friday.Almost all Americans wait outside major store, such as Wal-Mart,Target, K-Mart, for hours just to have a new laptop or flat screen tv for thirty percent the normal price. Another example are products at the cashier. When most people go into a store, they have their mind preset on a product or products they are going to buy. But, usually their product list ends up unnecessarily enlarging because they see some candy they want, or even their child wants. Who wants to say no to children? Those type of products are strategically placed there for the consum ption of Americans that do not need.A Buy Nothing Day would not be so effective since Americans are willing to spend their money on just about anything they want. Buy Nothing Day would also be ineffective because of the counteraction that the companies would take to help themselves economically. If companies know about Buy Nothing Day and are against it, they are going to try to get consumers to buy their goods. The law of demand ,relating to Economics, shows that as demand lowers, prices will as well. So companies will lower their prices to get more consumers buy their products.Since Americans are greedy, theyÃ¢â¬â¢d want the products they have at a lower price and the companies are not losing because they were originally not going to receive any profit anyway if all consumers participated in Buy Nothing Day. Buy Nothing Day is a nice thought. The attempt at unifying consumers against companies is inspiring. But, realistically, it wouldn't happen since Americans love buying thing s and companies are going to lower prices. With those to combination, there might actually be more sales that occur on Buy Nothing. Buy Nothing Day will be truly ineffective if it ends up like a Black Friday.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Industry Customer relation service help customers affect their satisfaction and their choice banks to thrive, both product and service delivery for adequately aligned with customer expectations, achieving customer satisfaction and loyalty is essential for long-term survival of the industry Wood, S. (1999) this essay will focus on the three aspect of customer relation contribution to the society. It will narrate the banking industry system, professional skill and personal skill. The industry target the role of innovation base objective of performance play by the industry regulatory. Agarwal, S., Krishna, M.E. and Chekitan, D.D. (2003) this help to gather the information for the innovation occurred within to mediate the relationshipÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦G. (1999). This are the industry values within the context of business policy and development. It help collection between the society through better services to its customers through compliance and legal teams that the general public is very satisfied for the industry services delivery. Numeracy skill, Numeracy skills involve being able to understand and work with numerical and graphical information, draw conclusions, and explain your findings. Some employers, particularly those in the actuarial profession, will require you to have a numerate degree such as mathematics, statistics or economics, as well as a maths a level. Ã¢â¬ËIf you want to become an actuary then it is essential that you have good numeracy skills,Ã¢â¬â¢ says Carla Lakey, partner at Lane, Clark Peacock LLP. Other finance employers wonÃ¢â¬â¢t require this, but numerical ability or aptitude for numbers is often essential. Expect your numeracy skills to be put to the test; many finance recruiters hold numerical tests as part of the recruitment process. 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